Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of smoking behavior among elementary students which may serve as basic data for developing a smoking prevention program. Method: Questionnaires were given to 734 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in five elementary schools in U county, North Chungcheong Province. Data were collected from 8 to 20 December, 2003; and analyzed using SPSS/PC for descriptive and chi-square statistics. Result: Of these students, 19.9% reported that they had smoked and 0.8% answered they are current smokers. They reported that the first smoking started during third grade (26.0%), at their homes (38.4%), and out of curiosity (74.0%). They reported severe coughing when they first smoked (56.2%). Smoking experiences were significantly related to grade, gender, and academic performance. Similarly, environmental characteristics such as residential area, parental status, father's job, parental attention, home atmosphere, and smoking siblings or friends were significantly related to smoking behavior. Among non-smokers, 86.4% intended not to smoke and 1.4% would like to smoke in the future. Conclusion: Certain school and environmental characteristics were associated with smoking experimentation. Therefore teachers and parents should use this information to develop and guide smoking prevention programs.